Monel is a group
of nickel alloys, primarily composed of nickel (up to 67%) and copper, with
small amounts of iron, manganese, carbon, and silicon. Stronger than pure
nickel, Monel alloys are resistant to corrosion by many agents, including
rapidly flowing seawater. They can be fabricated readily by hot- and
cold-working, machining, and welding.
Monel alloy 400 is
a binary alloy of the same proportions of nickel and copper.It is a very
expensive alloy, with cost ranging from 5 to 10 times the cost of copper and
nickel, hence its use is limited to those applications where it cannot be
replaced with cheaper alternatives. Compared to carbon steel, piping in monel
is more than 3 times as expensive.
production and refining